School of Economics - curriculum
Courses for Freshman
Basic knowledge and basic methods (mainly graphics) needed for taking Contemporary Economy I and II (Subjects for Sophomore) will be lectured.
In the first semester, major objectives will be understanding determination and adjustment process of equilibrium in the economic markets. In the second semester, demand and supply of materials and services in the competitive market will be explained, which will elucidate upon the characteristics of demand/supply curves in the competitive markets. In addition, in order to clarify upon roles played by the suppliers and demanders in the economy as a whole, the simplest cases of economic circulation and concepts of national income (so-called national income statistics) will be explained.
In this course, students in a year are divided into three groups which will receive lectures and engaged in exercise using problems and their answers. By combining these two aspects, we will aim at deeper understanding of economics among students.
Fundamental Statistic Research
The objectives of the Basic Statistics are acquisition of basic knowledge necessary for introductory statistics. The lecture will proceed mainly with very simple exercises and explanations on them.
There are no mathematical pre-requisites for taking this course. Rather, if there are those who did not study probabilities and statistics in high-school days, they should take this course as a preparation for going on to the specialized areas.
Students will learn theories of double entry bookkeeping and cultivate basic capabilities for learning accounting, corporate economy, and management subjects.
Bookkeeping stands for keeping books for accounting purposes and it composes technical aspects of accounting. The double entry bookkeeping has its origin in commercial cities in medieval Italy. As the economy developed, economies in German and France surged, which flowered into full-fledged capitalistic economies. Along with these, the bookkeeping is developed as English and American bookkeeping, which was introduced to Japan at the beginning of Meiji Era. Ever since then, bookkeeping became basic and traditional subjects it commerce and economics. Corporate accounting system in and out of Japan are as a matter of course based on double entry bookkeeping. It goes without saying that not only the accounting specialists but also managers and directors of corporations need to have capabilities to read into the accounting materials. In that regard, the bookkeeping knowledge will be of much use to them.
The course will place an importance on understanding of theoretical structure, mainly with the principle of double entry bookkeeping. We will be taking up concrete examples of calculation as much as possible for ease of understanding.
As with the building blocks, understanding of bookkeeping is only possible by building up from the bottom. What matters is efforts and not capability. Therefore, being absent from the class is sure to have an adverse effect.
Courses for Sophomore
Contemporary Economy I (National Income Analysis)
This course is an "introduction to the macro-economics." The objective of the course is an understanding of outline of the macro-economics, which grasps the national economy as an tabulated amount, as well as acquiring basic knowledge which is useful in problem solving in daily life, business, and citizens' lives.
In the course, students will learn the meaning of the following keywords: national income level; consumption expenditures and savings; corporate investment and capital stock formation, employment and unemployment; circulating currency and commodity price level; interest rate; banking system, government income and expenditure; international trade balance and foreign exchange rate and so on. Also, students are asked to understand the cause-effect and inter-dependency relationships among these elements by graphics and simple formulae for understanding the current status and problem areas of the Japanese economy.
Contemporary Economy II
In this course, the students will learn about basics of micro-economic theory.
- Supply-Demand and Price
- Theory of household accounting (Theory of consumption behaviors)
- Theory of corporations (Theory of production behaviors)
- Market and price determination
- Monopoly, incomplete consumption, and oligopoly
- Pareto optimum and failure of markets
There will be lectures for each of the above chapters and students are given exercise questions to solve in order to make understanding certain.
Accounting is a practical science of measuring economic activities conducted by corporations and other organizations and studying methods of clarifying on actual status of their management.
The lectures will explain arguments on financial statements in a manner easier to understand as much as possible according to basic theories without being caught up in detailed calculation. The arguments concerning financial statements are the central issues in accounting.
In order to have better understanding of accounting, it would be desirable for the students to have taken the bookkeeping course for Freshman.
- Maximum and minimum of secondary functions
- Calculation rules of sigma
- Simple minimum squaring method
- Calculation method
- Characteristics of minimum square estimation
- Significance verification of estimated value
If relatively many students have obtained credits for fundamental statistic research and if the conditions of the Information Center permitting, we may be using PC's for sections 2 and 3-1.
European Economic History
Most of the advanced industrial countries of capitalistic economy have experienced processes of modernization (moving out of traditional society) and industrialization (departure from societies based on agricultural production). These processes are affecting contemporary conditions in various forms and they are still major themes for the western economic history. While referring to references of West European countries, there will be lectures in the course for explaining the items that comprise the above-mentioned processes: manorial system;medieval cities and commerce and industry; changes of economies in cities and rural areas; commercial revolution and price revolution; absolute monarchy and mercantilism, and so on. No textbooks will be used for the course.
Reading in Foreign Language I
In this course, we will be reading English papers on mechanisms of how an economy recovers from downturn and how a booming economy turns into a downturn on concrete and easy to understand manner. I would like the students to be interested in the economy and its conditions while studying English.
Students should be delighted to find that a certain ways are considered for reading text without consulting dictionaries too much.
Courses for Junior
Principles of Economy I
The goal of this course is for the students to understand the basic theories of macro-economics. The lectures will cover the following topics:
- various concepts of national income
- determination of national income
- changes and growth in national income
- currencies and economic activities; and macro-economic policy.
History of Economics Theory
About 250 years have elapsed ever since the study of economics has ever begun. There have been a variety of schools of economics and there still are many schools today. What are the reasons for the existence of such variety of schools in economics? In this course, variety of such economic schools will be taken up roughly in the orders they occurred. We will be learning about the development of theories and their historic reasons of being.
The government conducts economic activities in various areas by itself: financing, financial matters, trade, industry, medical care, welfare, education, labor, and so on. At the same time, it also conducts activities that affect economic activities in the private sectors.
In this course, we would take as many of these as possible that are of important analytical contents as well as of those that are noted as real problems. We would like to think about why these policies are necessary and what are the effects of them.
The classes will proceed while explaining some of the theories such as game theories, which are necessary for our discussion.
The objectives of this course is how the currencies and financing affect on economic activities. The major function of currencies is means of exchange. In order to support financing or payment activities, bonds are issued and currencies are obtained. There are behaviors for purchasing materials and services.
Acquisitions of materials and services are related to consumption activities, investment activities, production activities, and commercial activities (which include trading) in view of objective of behaviors. Furthermore,in relation to economic activities of the government, we cannot but touch upon the effects of issuance and redemption of public bonds on national economy.
When the activities of the economic bodies go beyond national borders, there occur problems of exchanges of one currency to others. When economic activities involve international financial activities, these lead to problems of international financing. This course mainly deals with national economy, but we cannot separate international financing and national economies in the current conditions.
The national government is engaged in various activities such as: maintaining law and order; public enterprises, social welfare; education; science and technology; and so on. The funds necessary for such activities are obtained through collections of taxes from the nation. Such activities of the government is financing and the study of financing concerns this.
This course will mainly deal with: why is this financing activity by the government is necessary?; what are the governments income that support government activities, and especially, what are the conditions of the taxes that are the major income?; and what are the relationships of the financing to the corporate activities and individual life and what are its effects on the national economy?
The contemporary financing is closely related to development of Keynesian economics and modern economics. The students are asked to study modern economics as it is necessary for understanding in this course.
Labor Economic Theory
In the first semester, the course will focus on systems of labor economics and theories and history of labor and social policy. In the second semester, history of labor and social policy in Japan will be outlined.
Especially, there will be theoretical and empirical elucidation on enormous accumulation in the corporations and conditions of labor class in the post-war period in relation to the government's labor and social policy and labor management of major corporations. Furthermore, there will be clarification on the current status and problems areas for different areas and subjects concerning the contemporary labor problems.
Theory of Monetary Market(Banking and Security Business)
Monetary markets are the areas of funding (lending and borrowing) for economic subjects such as individuals and corporations. The market can be categorized to indirect monetary market and direct monetary market. Indirect monetary market is mediated by financial institutions such as banks. Direct monetary market is where buying and selling of securities such as company stocks and bonds by various subjects takes place. The course will describe and explain these. At the same time, the current status of financial institutions and securities business that are playing the major roles in the monetary market will be discussed along with the problems and future of financial systems.
Contemporary Trade Theory (Trade Theory)
In our time, due to rapid popularity of internet, means of communication have developed and ties with foreign countries have become even stronger. As these things happen, the varieties in trading have increased, which is leading to various problems in international trading. In this course, as basic theories of trading used as methods of analyzing these problems, there will be the following four themes:
- Basic models of international trades
- Trade theory of Ricardo
- Trade theory of Hechshire Olici
- Theories of trade policy
Statistical methods are creating statistical data and utilizing them. In this course, students are asked to become skill in use of statistical methods and they are to understand how useful the statistical methods can be in the study of economics.
The course will take up some of the actual economic statistics in Japan while paying attention to their position in the actual economy. (For example, production relationship statistics or industrial structure statistics, mining and industry related index, distribution related statistics or commercial statistics, consumption related statistics or population related statistics, household economy survey statistics, price index and so on.) We will dwell upon production methods of these statistics, their problems, and utilization methods of such statistics. At the same time, we will clarify how useful statistics can be for explaining economic phenomena or study of economics.
History of Modern Economics (Economic History)
In this course, with England as subjects, historic changes after the industrialization in the 19th Century will be outlined. From the points of view of socio-economic history, the following will be taken up: "industrialization and urbanization" importantly triggered by industrial revolution, progress of things generally referred to as modernization of society, and various problems brought about by these. There will be no specific textbooks.
Japanese Economic History
In this course, processes of progress of the Japanese economy from the 16th Century to present will be delineated. Japanese type of modern economic progress and structural characteristics will be clarified. The lectures will follow the following sequence:
- Establishment of Shogunite society and its structure
- Structural changes in the Edo Era economy
- Opening up of ports and Meiji restoration
- Starting of progress of modern economy
- Economies between the wars
- Reforms after W.W. II and high growth
- Turning points of Japanese economy in the 1970's
Reading in Foreign Language II
By taking turns in reading English references that are based on research achievements in recent years, the students are asked to understand English economic history in the 19th and 20th Centuries.
This is a subject seemingly in the outside the field of economics for students in the economic section. However, within the framework of the society, permissions and authorizations by the administrative organizations are closely related with all kinds of economic activities, Therefore, it is necessary for the students in the economics to study the theories in the background of the administrative laws. Since it is closely related to our daily life, we believe the students will find the subject interesting.
The civil law is a very basic law in the society. Since the commercial law and labor law are built on the basis of civil law, and civil law is the basis of everything else. The civil law is made up of five elements: general rules, obligations, kinship, and inheritance. The lectures will mainly cover the former three, are rules on assets. However, the articles in this section of the law are old style Japanese written with katakana. Students should acquire the skills for reading them.
Using a textbook, students will learn conversational expressions. Listening comprehension capabilities will be emphasized as we learn. I would like the students to have positive attitudes. Tapes will also be utilized. At the same time, we will introduce topics on customs and practices in Chinese society.
Courses for Senior
Business Fluctuation Research
At the outset of the 19th Century, Britain completed industrial revolution and entered the industrial capitalism stage of capitalism. At the same time, Britain began to be attacked by strong economic panics of about 10-year cycle. Each of the economic depression had its own characteristics and the structure of capitalism itself had its caused.
This course will follow historically the cyclic economic fluctuations, which inevitably comes taking differentforms. We will try to clarify in terms of economics the mechanism of cyclic movements, from downturn to recovery, recovery to booming economy, and then to depression, and the reasons for the 10-year cycle.
On the other hand, we will be following the actual movements of the economy. The students should learn basic methods of economic forecasts for making forecasts on their own.
Currently, there are discussions on "post-industrialization" and economies shifting to service and software economies. However, industrial production has a very important meaning as the bases of economic development and economies shifting to service and software economies.
In this course, key concepts will be described first: division of labor, detour production, relationship between the expansion of industrial production by mass production and economic development, position of industry in production cycles, three categories of industry by C. Clark and W. Petty's law, W. Hoffman's law and so on. Then, there will be lectures on industrial development and transition of industrial policy in Japan, from the time of the Meiji Restoration to present.
The references will be introduced as necessary in the lecture.
International trades in recent years are very complex and many difficult problems are arising. For example, after the World War II, Japan achieve a rapid economic growth. On the other hand, Japan developed trade frictions in various industries and, as a result, protectionist thinking emerged in the United States. How would it be possible for economic theories to grasp such phenomena. In this course, we shall set out by the very fundamental problem of trade: Why is trading conducted? Then, we will discuss economic effects of tariff, export (import) restrictions, and production assistance money, which are representative trade policy measures. Then, there will be explanations on various effects of trade policies after describing monopoly, externality, and capital transfer.
History of Japanese Economic Thought
In this course, we will set out by various problems we are currently facing: economic depression, changes in the industsrial structure, administrative reforms, balancing the budget, collapse of family, medical care for the aged, internationalization and the like. Then, we will revisit the past and we clarify on the origin of the problems and progress to the present, in terms of the history of thoughts, trying to find solutions to the problems. In concrete terms, we will take up three periods of Edo, Meiji, and post-war periods and explain thoughts: thoughts on governing by samurais and bureaucrats; thoughts of village community; thoughts of commerce and industry management; thoughts of life of the mass, thoughts of shinto and Buddhism: ways of acceptance of Western thoughts, thoughts of fighting segregation, thoughts of providing care for the aged and social security, and so on.
Since this course is offered to Senior, in the first semester, the focus will be on following up in terms of economic history and history of the study of economic history on: formation and establishment process of modern labor-management relationships. In the second semester, we will take up various problems relating to labor-management relationships in contemporary Japan: bullying in corporations, restructuring of middle-aged to old-age workers, segregation on women, and so on. These will be dealing with the current problems. At the same time, we would like to position these problems within history.
The International Law course will emphasize conveying to students the systems of international law that have been established over the years. Since true international law cannot be studied without considering various phenomena in international law that are occurring in the international community today, we will be taking them up as they come. The major contents of lectures will be: international law as the law of international community; history of the theories of international law; organizing international community; areas of nations; international humanitarian law: maintenance of peace and security, and so on.
Common Courses for Junior and Senior
Economics: Special Lectures I (Migrating International Labor)
This course will deal with migrating international labor. The current plan is to cover the following areas:
Part I : Current Status of Migrating International Labor
Chapter 1 Europe
Chapter 2 America
Chapter 3 Asia
Part II : Economic Effects of Migrating International Labor
Chapter 4 McDoogal Model
Chapter 5 H-O Model
Chapter 6 Movements of International Capital and International Labor
Chapter 7 Analyses on Illegal Immigrants
Outline of Distribution
The Outline of Distribution is an introductory lecture on overall contents of specialized courses in commerce. It may give an impression of hodge-podge subject due to its "outline" title. In order to avoid this, we would like to propose the subject of marketing as the new science on distribution of commodity. This marketing is something that have been developed in the United States at the beginning of the 20th Century, replacing the German study on commerce. What should be noted is that this marketing is based on socio-economic point of view and not the managerial marketing, which students will be taking after their first year. In order to complement it, managerial marketing will be partially introduced. Since the marketing taken up in the Outline of Distribution is socio-economic marketing and its main subjects is distribution mechanism. The references will be introduced as necessary.
Marketing is lectured from mainly managerial points of view. After dwelling upon environmental factors of marketing, we will touch upon marketing strategy and marketing planning. Then, the various elements of marketing mix will be taken up in concrete terms: marketing intelligence (information), product planning, sales orientation, advertising, sales promotion, human sales, price setting, services, logistics, and so on. Although the course will mainly deal with managerial marketing, comments will be added on social marketing and various national economic distribution problems.
General Manage people.ment
The goal of this course is forming the base in management subjects by sorting and understanding basic concepts in management. Major theories has it that subjects of management are: (1) corporations and (2) organizations. Since this course is an introductory course, the arguments for these two kinds of theories will be introduced. Therefore, in the first semester, corporations based theories will be introduced.
In the second semester, organization based theories will be introduced. However, since the organizational theories were developed mainly with corporations, we will be taking examples of organizations from among corporations. In simple terms, in the former, the focus is money. In the latter, the focus is people.
Students as they enter university have very little experience as human beings. Many of the students will be taking up management for the first time. The students at the university will be learning about corporations and management, which is not just stories but science. Therefore, students should begin with the basics.